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We investigated the effects of leadership and tangible and intangible resources on sustainable competitive advantage. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using the Seventh-day Adventist Church Institutions in Zimbabwe. A questionnaire was administered to 341 respondents. The results of the correlation analysis show that leadership (r = .57; p<.01), tangible resources (r =. 53; p< .0l), and intangible resources (r =. 43; p< .05) significantly correlate with sustainable competitive advantage. Furthermore, the regression analysis showed that all three variables combined had a significant effect on sustainable competitive advantage (adjusted R-square = .359) (F (3, 327) =62.61, p<0.05). Additionally, the analysis shows that leadership (β = .370; p < 0.05) and tangible resources (β = .273; p < 0.05) contributed the most to the institutions’ sustainable competitive advantage. However intangible resources, singly, do not significantly affect the competitive advantage. The results confirm the key role of leadership in creating a competitive advantage in organizations. Thus, the study highlights that without leaders’ willingness and effective engagement, those institutions cannot effectively compete in the marketplace despite the presence of resources.


Leadership Tangible Resources Intangible Resources Sustainable Competitive Advantage Faith-based Institutions

Article Details

Author Biographies

Godfrey Musara , Adventist University of Africa, Kenya

Dr. Godfrey Musara earned his Bachelor's degree in Theology from Solusi University in Zimbabwe and his Master's and Doctorate degrees in Leadership from the Adventist University of Africa. He is passionate about leadership development and research.

Marie-Anne Razafiarivony , Adventist University of Africa, Kenya

Marie-Anne Razafiarivony is an Associate Professor of Business Management and the program coordinator of the MBA program at the Adventist University of Africa (AUA) in Kenya. She holds a Ph.D. in Business Management and an MBA. Her research interests include career management and development, organizational resilience, entrepreneurship, and the integration of faith and business management.

How to Cite
Musara, G., & Razafiarivony , M.-A. (2024). Relationship between Leadership, Intangible and Tangible Resources, and Sustained Competitive Advantage in selected Adventist institutions in Zimbabwe. Pan-African Journal of Education and Social Sciences, 5(1), 144–159.


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