Main Article Content


The power of social media has shrunk the world into an increasingly truly global village. subsequently, leaders are expected by their organizations to competently fit and cope in whatever field they are assigned to serve. Thus, they are inevitably exposed daily to communities of different systems, intonations, cultures, languages, traditions, and practices. But how prepared are they to serve in a varied setting? Cultural intelligence, the ability to work effectively in culturally diverse situations, will be the focus of this paper, which seeks to help equip and guide global church leaders in light of Hofstede’s cultural dimension of power distance. Further, this purely literary search attempts to create an awareness of cultural intelligence that leaders need to make sense of unfamiliar contexts, ideas, and approaches. The authors conclude that faith and culture can work in tandem, thus giving the Church capacity through its leaders to be an effective witness of the gospel to people of different tongues, tribes, and kindred.


Cultural awareness cultural intelligence communication global leadership power distance

Article Details

Author Biographies

Pako Edson Mokgwane, Maryland, USA

Dr. Pako Edson Mokgwane, Associate Youth Director, General Conference. He holds a Doctor of Philosophy in Organizational Leadership from Adventists University of Africa, Nairobi, Kenya. With 18 years as a Church Leader, Mokgwane’s research interests include Cross-Cultural Leadership, Christian Leadership, Followership, Digital Mass Communication, Youth Leadership, Emotional Intelligence and Change Management.

Olaotse Obed Gabasiane, Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies, Philippines

Olaotse Obed Gabasiane is an assistant professor at the Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies. He holds a Ph.D. in Religion—Intercultural Studies in Mission and Ministry, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI, USA, with 25 years of experience as a Pastor, Church Administrator, and Teacher. Gabasiane’s research interests include cultural intelligence, cross-cultural mission, traditional African religion and medicine, artificial intelligence and mission research, and substance abuse.

How to Cite
Mokgwane, P. E., & Gabasiane, O. O. (2023). Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension Model and Cultural Intelligence: A Global Imperative for the Contemporary Church Leader. Pan-African Journal of Education and Social Sciences, 4(2). Retrieved from


  1. Aguilera-Barchet, B. (2015). Europeans: Don't be afraid of your culture! European View, 142(2), 181–189.
  2. Alon, I., & Higgins, J. M. (2005). Global leadership success through emotional and cultural intelligence. Business Horizons, 48(6), 501–512.
  3. Alsalminy, B. M. K., & Omrane, A. (2023). The effects of emotional intelligence on leadership effectiveness (A prospective case study of three industrial companies in Iraq). Journal of Positive Psychology and Wellbeing, 988-1006.
  4. Anderson, C. (2022). A case study in failure: Kuku-Yalanji and the Lutherans at Bloomfield River, 1887-1902. Australian Association for the Study of Religions Book Series, 17-17.
  5. Attar, M., Jami, M. S., & Kalfaoğlu, S. (2019). Effect of cultural intelligence on transactional and transformational leadership styles: A research in charity organizations in Erbil. Selcuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 41, 148–160.
  6. Azevedo, A., & Shane, M. J. (2019). A new training program in developing cultural intelligence can also improve innovative work behavior and resilience: A longitudinal pilot study of graduate students and professional employees. The International Journal of Management Education, 17(3), 100303.
  7. Barnett, L., & Carter, E. (Eds.) (2018). Challenges to leadership in intercultural settings: Intercultural interactions and knowledge management. Research from Thailand. Kindmore End: Academic conferences international limited.
  8. Bell, C. A. (2021). Jesus as an Exemplary Leader. In Biblical Organizational Leadership: Principles from the Life of Jesus in the Gospel of John (pp. 121-139). Springer.
  9. Blog. Key Internet Statistics to know in 2021 (including mobile). Retrieved from
  10. Botma, Y., & Snyman, S. (2019). Africa Interprofessional Education Network (AfrIPEN). Journal of Interprofessional Care, 33.3, 274–276.
  11. de Guzman, R. B., Chua, M. L., Goldstein, D., Aung, S., Eaton, V., & Park, K. (2023). ASCO's Leadership Development Program: Focusing on the Next Generation of Leaders in Asia Pacific. JCO Global Oncology, 9, e2200313.
  12. Florea, M. (2018). The legitimacy of the symbolic power in communication. International Journal of Communication Research, 8(2), 126–129.
  13. Hajian, S. (2019). Transfer of learning and teaching: A review of transfer theories and effective instructional practices. IAFOR Journal of Education, 7(1), 93-111.
  14. Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. McGraw-Hill.
  15. Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context. Retrieved from
  16. House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., & Dorfman, P. W. (Eds.) (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. Sage.
  17. Kamaara, E. (2000). The role of the Christian church in socio-economic and political development in Kenya. Journal of Third World Studies, 17(1), 165-176.
  18. Kanu, I. A., & Igboechesi, S. E. (2023). African society, marriage and the global community. Nigerian Journal of Arts And Humanities (NJAH), 3(2), 1-8.
  19. Kerwin, D., & Millet, E. (2023). The US immigration courts, dumping ground for the nation’s systemic immigration failures: The causes, composition, and politically difficult solutions to the court backlog. Journal on Migration and Human Security, 11(2), 194-227.
  20. Keung, E. K., & Rockinson-Szapkiw, A. J. (2013). The relationship between transformational leadership and cultural intelligences: A study of international school leaders. Journal of Educational Administration, 51(6), 836–854.
  21. Kwon, Y. S., & Yoo, E. K. (2017). The research on concept development: Prejudice. International Information Institute (Tokyo). Information, 20(3A), 1785-1794.
  22. Jung, P. J. (2023). Matrix: A Journal for Matricultural Studies. Matrix, 3(1).
  23. Lasu, S., & Biaggi, C. E. (2021). A theory of virtuous leadership and its influence on organizational performance in Christian organizations: A classic grounded theory study. The Journal of Applied Christian Leadership, 15(1), 54-79.
  24. Light, J. (1997). “Communication is the essence of human life”: Reflections on communicative competence. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 13, 61–70.
  25. Livermore, D. A. (2009). Cultural intelligence (youth, family, and culture): Improving your CQ to engage our multicultural world. Baker Academic.
  26. Lubis, B. N. A., & Sagala, R. W. (2020). The comparative of Indonesian and Western culture in live action: A study of cross-culture. English Teaching and Linguistics Journal (ETLiJ), 1(2), 56-59.
  27. Maestripieri, D., Henry, A., & Nickels, N. (2017). Explaining financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive people: Interdisciplinary perspectives from economics, social psychology, and evolutionary psychology. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 40, e19.
  28. The Martin Trust Center for MIT Entrepreneurship (2020). Cultural intelligence and leadership: The Martin Trust Center for MIT Entrepreneurship. Retrieved from
  29. Marcus, A., & Gould, E. W. (2000). Crosscurrents: cultural dimensions and global Web user-interface design. interactions, 7(4), 32-46.
  30. Mokgwane, P.E. (2022). Determinants of youth participation in leadership in the Southern Africa Indian-Ocean Division of the Seventh-day Adventist church (Doctoral Dissertation, Adventist University of Africa).
  31. Mudau, T. J., & Dingindawo, N. (2018). Appraisal of the effects of globalization on young people: A study of Thamaga village in the Republic of Botswana in the 1990s. African Renaissance, 15(1), 149–180.
  32. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2020). Social isolation and loneliness in older adults: Opportunities for the health care system. National Academies Press.
  33. Nazir, S., Shafi, A., Asadullah, M. A., Qun, W., & Khadim, S. (2021). Linking paternalistic leadership to follower's innovative work behavior: the influence of leader–member exchange and employee voice. European Journal of Innovation Management, 24(4), 1354-1378.
  34. Neate, J. 2022. “Cultural perceptions: A barrier to the role of cross-cultural friendships in mission?” Ecclesial Futures 3(2): 31–49.
  35. Neuliep, J. W. (2009). Intercultural communication: A contextual approach (4th). Sage.
  36. Norris, P. (1999). Global communications and cultural identities. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 4(4), 1-7.
  37. Northouse, P. G. (2019). Leadership: Theory and practice. Sage.
  38. Nwafor, O. A., Ugwuanyi, J. C., & Amatu, C. U. (2023). Social media and political participation in the midst of COVID-19 pandemic: An empirical review of Anambra 2021 gubernatorial election. Journal of Emerging Technologies, 3(1), 1-12.
  39. Nurmatovich, A. Z. (2023). Exploring cultural values: an axiological study of Western and Eastern narratives. Open Access Repository, 4(3), 1152-1155.
  40. Omotoyinbo, F. R. (2018). Modern African women versus traditional African women: A reply to Simphiwe Sesanti's "African philosophy for African women's leadership: The Journal of Pan African Studies (Online), 11(4), 166–176.
  41. Reig, R. (2019). History, power, communication, journalism: Beyond the “traditional” critical approach. El Profesional De La Información, 28(6).
  42. Sabirjanovna, P. Z. (2023). Issues of culture shock in adaptation to another culture. Journal of Modern Educational Achievements, 3(3), 240-244.
  43. Savu, I. (2019). Amplifying perfomance in virtual teams optimizing communication strategies. Research and Science Today, 112–122.
  44. Schwartz, S. H. (2004). Mapping and interpreting cultural differences around the world. In Comparing cultures (pp. 43-73). Brill.
  45. Shori, S. (2023). A study on consumer ethnocentrism in India (MBA Thesis, Delhi Technological University, India). DSpace@DTU.
  46. Shuck, B., Alagaraja, M., Immekus, J., Cumberland, D., & Honeycutt‐Elliott, M. (2019). Does compassion matter in leadership? A two‐stage sequential equal status mixed method exploratory study of compassionate leader behavior and connections to performance in human resource development. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 30(4), 537-564.
  47. Simankane, T. & Mokgwane, P (2020). The relevance of situational leadership juxtaposed with the followership approach in the fight against the Covid-19 pandemic. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI), 09(4), 1–5.
  48. Siripipatthanakul, S., Sitthipon, T. & Jaipong, P. (2023). A review of cultural intelligence for today’s globalised world. World Journal of English and Linguistic Studies, 1(1), 1-8.
  49. Sovic, S. (2009). Hi-bye friends and the herd instinct: International and home students in the creative arts. Higher Education, 58(6), 741-761.
  50. Tolkach, D., & Pratt, S. (2022). Globalisation and cultural change in Pacific Island countries: the role of tourism. In Island Tourism Sustainability and Resiliency (pp. 10-35). Routledge.
  51. Tucker, M. F., Bonial, R., Vanhove, A., & Kedharnath, U. (2014). Leading across cultures in the human age: An empirical investigation of intercultural competency among global leaders, 3(1), 1–21.
  52. White, E. G. (1905). Ministry of Healing. Pacific Press Publishing Association.
  53. Wiranto, R. (2015). Church leadership identity: Between hopes and reality (solidarity network leadership as an alternative). International Information Institute (Tokyo). Information, 18(11), 4269–4641.
  54. Yari, N., Lankut, E., Alon, I., & Richter, N. F. (2020). Cultural intelligence, global mindset, and cross-cultural competencies: A systematic review using bibliometric methods. European Journal of International Management, 14(2), 210-250.
  55. Young, C. A., Haffejee, B., & Corsun, D. L. (2017). The relationship between ethnocentrism and cultural intelligence. International Journal of Intercultural Relations : IJIR, 58, 31.