Main Article Content


Background: Cultural attachments among third culture kids (TCKs) are indefinite because of frequent encounters with different cultural environments. This study was concerned with the changes in the self-esteem of TCKs when havruta discussion reading therapy classes were conducted.

Methods: This study used an experimental design. Two international schools in the Philippines were selected, and 26 students aged 13–18 years were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. A scale reconstructed by Ga Yeon (1993) was used to measure the respondents’ self-esteem.

Results: The results indicated that the havruta program positively impacted TCKs’ self-esteem, especially at the overall and social levels. Both groups showed no significant differences in overall social, family, and school self-esteem rankings.

Conclusion: The findings of this study have implications for education, stakeholders, and future researchers seeking to address the needs of TCKs.


Havruta reading therapy self-esteem third culture kid Philippines

Article Details

Author Biography

Jong-sik Ko , National University of Tainan, Taiwan

Jong-sik Ko is currently serving as a senior pastor in Dunnae, Gangwon-do, Korea. He holds a PhD in education from the National University of Tainan, Taiwan. Additionally, he is qualified as an MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) general instructor, family violence counselor, sexual violence counselor, smoking cessation instructor, social worker level 2, psychological counseling level 2, and PREARE-ENRICH-CV couple relationship test. His research interests include third-culture kids, Havruta learning, self-esteem changes, cross-cultural reading therapy, and reflective thinking. 

How to Cite
ko, jong- sik. (2024). Self-esteem Changes of Third Culture Kids When Havruta Discussion Reading Therapy Classes Were Applied. Pan-African Journal of Health and Environmental Science, 3(1), 93–107.


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